Your metabolism is responsible for burning calories and creating energy from food and stored glycogen and fat (lipids). Thermogenesis is the process of heat “thermo” creation “-genesis”. Within the body, this leads to increased calorie and fat burning. Lipoxanthin’s patent-pending thermogenic blend of fucoxanthin from seaweed and natural caffeine from coffee beans stimulate thermogenesis in two different pathways, while the Gluco Support blend with berberine plus patented Cinnulin® cinnamon extract and Chromax® chromium picolinate to help maintain blood glucose within a healthy range and the LipoCRP™ blend provides antioxidant cell protection.


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What is Lipoxanthin®?

Metabolism Support*

Lipoxanthin® is a patent-pending, multi-action nutritional formula that stimulates thermogenesis in two complementary pathways while supporting normal blood sugar metabolism.*

Your metabolism is responsible for burning calories and creating energy from food and stored glycogen and fat (lipids). Thermogenesis is the process of heat “thermo” creation “-genesis”. Within the body, this leads to increased calorie and fat burning. Lipoxanthin’s patent-pending thermogenic blend of fucoxanthin from seaweed and natural caffeine from coffee beans stimulate thermogenesis in two different pathways, while the Gluco Support blend with berberine plus patented Cinnulin® cinnamon extract and Chromax® chromium picolinate to help maintain blood glucose within a healthy range and the LipoCRP™ blend provides antioxidant cell protection.*

Lipxanthin® is designed to be used in conjunction with the Live with Purpose® program for maintaining a health metabolism, available at

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

What Does It Do?

Live with Purpose® for Healthy Weight Management

Maintaining a healthy weight has many facets, and can seem overwhelming—which is why most programs fail. The Live with Purpose® Program for healthy weight management integrates the best in nutrition, dietary and lifestyle research to create a comprehensive program to get you on the right track quickly and easily.

The average amount of time a person sticks with a “weight loss diet” is just 3 weeks, and the average dieter makes 4 attempts per year. That’s because most weight loss diets don’t work.

Purpose® Nutrition Lipoxanthin® is different by design, created to be taken as part of the Live with Purpose® program that provides the information, tools and support you need for lifelong weight management success. We have done the research into the simplest actions that give you the greatest results—the 80/20 rule for weight loss. Here’s what we found:

Start with 5 Simple Steps

During the first 4 weeks taking Lipoxanthin®, you can kick-start your weight loss results and start looking and feeling better faster by following these five simple steps.

Healthy Weight Step-by-Step

Here’s one way you can easily incorporate the Live with Purpose® Healthy Weight Program into your life.

6:00 AM Take Purpose Nutrition® Lipoxanthin® with a big glass of water before breakfast.

6:30 AM Choose a breakfast that leaves out the “white foods” like sweeteners (sugar or artificial). Avoid white bread, breakfast cereals. (Many contain a lot of sugar and refined carbs.) Unfortunately, fruit juices like OJ are mostly empty sugars without the fiber of real fruit. The good news is, if you’re craving orange juice, you can always eat an orange—they’re loaded with fiber and nutrients and actually taste a lot more orangey than sugary OJ.??Breakfast is a great time to enjoy some fiber-rich foods. Two slices of whole-wheat toast with a serving of peanut butter have about 7 grams—add a banana to make it 10 grams! Wash it down with a big glass of water and you’ve already had one quarter of your daily water and one-third of the way to your daily fiber goals before it’s even seven o’clock.

7:00 AM This would be a great time for a walk. Can’t do a whole forty minutes before work? Okay then, just squeeze in ten! The morning light and fresh air will help you wake up and get you going.

10:00 AM Time for a big glass of water. Add a small fiber-rich snack like a handful of almonds (but say no to granola bars or trail mix with their sugary stuff). Maybe round it out with a ten-minute walk for a mid-morning trifecta.

Noon About a half hour before lunch, have another big glass of water. It’ll help you feel full and keep your portions reasonable. Have a lunch with moderate fiber content, like a nice salad. Have more water during the meal but steer clear of sodas (regular or diet) and other sugary or highly processed “white” foods. Fill up on veggies, add some lean protein, and maybe some healthy fats from avocado or a handful of nuts. You’ll feel satisfied and nourished without the processed stuff.

3:00 PM Now go for a walk—even just ten minutes. Ask a friend to join you—the time will fly by. Don’t forget your big glass of water!

7:00 PM Do your big-glass-of-water trick again 30 minutes before dinner, then enjoy a great dinner that includes some fiber. Whole-wheat pasta with tomato sauce and a serving or two of veggies would do the trick. You don’t have to starve yourself or have insanely small portions (but don’t go crazy and SuperSize it either.) If you’re eating enough fiber and drinking your gallon of water throughout the day, you should feel pleasantly full without overeating. ??If you haven’t gotten in your day’s two miles/forty-minutes of walking, finish it up after dinner. Or maybe take a little walk even if you already did already reach your goal.

10:00 PM Hit the hay. Getting eight hours of sleep each night isn’t an official part of the Healthy Weight Program, but here’s a little secret—it sure does help. Good sleep makes you feel great and can make all the little challenges of sticking with a program seem a little easier. So get that sleep if you can!

Live with Purpose®

Purpose®—we all have one. Pursuing it gives life meaning, making us more conscious of the choices we make in every dimension of our lives. These daily choices—how we nourish our bodies, minds, and intentions—determine our success at what really matters. Live with Purpose® programs are designed to give you maximum benefit most easily. Much more than just recommending a nutrition program, this integrated approach targeting better health for the whole person is our guiding philosophy behind each Live with Purpose® program. We believe that our choices should make yours easier—so you can pursue your purpose.


1. Frank, GK, et al. “Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener.” Neuroimage. 2008;39:1559-69.

2. Suez, Jotham et al. “Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota.” Nature 514, 181–186 (09 October 2014) doi:10.1038

3. Bellisle F, Drewnowski A. “Intense sweeteners, energy intake and the control of body weight.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;61:691-700

4. American Heart Association’s 2012 meeting on Epidemiology and Prevention/Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism

5. Journal of Hypertension, Sept. 2006. Wallace

6. Ma, Yunsheng, et al. “Single-Component Versus Multicomponent Dietary Goals for the Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Trial.” Annals of Intern Medicine. 2015;162(4):248-257. doi:10.7326/M14-0611

7. Parretti, Helen M, et al. “Efficacy of water preloading before main meals as a strategy for weight loss in primary care patients with obesity: RCT” Obesity. 2015;23(9):1785-1791

Why Lipoxanthin® Matters

Walk a mile in your own shoes.
The human body was designed to move, every day. Walking even a mile throughout the day can stimulate the metabolism, provide cardiovascular benefits, and keep you burning more calories all day long. Walking is free, non-strenuous, and effective indoors or outside. Starting each day with a walk provides all day benefits.A recent study found that regular walking can even turn off the negative effects of certain genes. Time magazine reported on a study that showed walking briskly for one hour per day switched off 50% of the effect of these genetic markers for higher body mass index (BMI).4 So walking doesn’t just burn calories, it actually switches off—or at least turns down—the genetic signals that contribute to making you gain weight. Even a short walk can have great benefits, especially once you get into the habit of walking more.A study published in the Journal of Hypertension found that in terms of maintaining healthy blood pressure, both longer walks (40 minutes) and a series of shorter walks (four ten-minute walks) were effective, but that the benefits of four short walks actually lasted longer than the single long walk.5 So you can walk any time of day and split it up however you like and still get the benefits.Aim for 40 minutes a day of walking (about two miles). More is better and you’ll probably soon find yourself looking forward to your walks and wanting to go farther.

The Science behind Lipoxanthin®

Millions of people in the US and worldwide are overweight or obese. For many, managing weight and body composition is challenging. Some nutritional supplements may make it easier for people to maintain weight and improve body composition.

One approach is to use compounds that enhance thermogenesis. Thermogenesis is the process of metabolizing fat to create heat in the body. Certain dietary substances are known to induce this process. These include ephedra (ephedrine), bitter orange (synephrine), chili peppers (capsaicin), green tea (EGCG), protein, pyruvate, and fucoxanthin. Some of these compounds stimulate the central nervous system as a component of their action. Non-stimulant thermogenic compounds promote fat burning through different mechanisms.

Thermogenic Blend

Fucoxanthin – a unique thermogenic compound

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid compound that is common in many seaweeds and marine plants. It is related to compounds like beta carotene and chlorophyl and helps plants capture sunlight and convert it to energy. Fucoxanthin is present in many brown seaweeds eaten in some Asian cuisines, such as the dried seaweed nori used to wrap sushi.

Due to its unique molecular structure, fucoxanthin exhibits a number of potentially beneficial effects on animal cells as shown in preclinical research. These effects include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and antidiabetic actions. Among its more powerful actions, fucoxanthin appears to be an overall regulator of lipid metabolism in fat tissue. Preclinical research in rodents suggests that it exerts its thermogenic actions by inducing the expression of the uncoupling protein (UCP1) that promotes thermogenesis.

Types of brown seaweed in a traditional Japanese diet have been shown to reduce the weight of abdominal fat tissue in mice and rats [1,2] presumably from fucoxanthin as the active component. The same research found that the seaweed inhibited fat absorption, decreased serum triglyceride levels, and had an anti-obesity effect in mice
on a high fat diet. Fucoxanthin has been shown to inhibit intercellular lipid accumulation.[3]

Fucoxanthin appears to be easily metabolized and highly bioavailable.[4] Fucoxanthin shows few adverse effects on normal cells[5] and no signs of toxicity even at high doses (750mg/kg per day for 4 weeks). [6]

One double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled human trial of fucoxanthin, found that obese, premenopausal women with fatty liver disease given a mixture of 300mg pomegranate seed oil and 300 mg brown seaweed extract standardized for 2.4mg of fucoxanthin showed statistically significant reduction of body weight, waist circumference, body and liver fat content, serum triglyerides, and C-reative protein (CRP). On average, the women in the study lost 11 pounds over 16 weeks.[7] More human trials of fucoxanthin are currently underway.

Green Tea, Green Coffee and Caffeine

Lipoxanthin also incorporates thermogenic compounds that have a mild stimulant effect to maximize its effects.

Caffeine is one of the best known and best understood thermogenic compounds. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that also works within cells to inhibit the phosphodiesterase-induced degradation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) within cells. This helps maintain the cells’ energy burning processes. Caffeine has also been found to help potentiate the thermogenic effect of other thermogenic compounds—particularly during calorie restriction.

The caffeine in Lipoxanthin is derived primarily from coffee bean extract and green tea leaf extract. These extracts also contain phytochemicals such as epigallocatechin (EGCG) and chlorogenic acids, which are believed to help potentiate thermogenesis.

Gluco Support Blend


Many people who are overweight or obese suffer from insulin resistance where the body’s cells no longer properly respond to insulin. Normally, insulin controls the levels of glucose (blood sugar) and lipids (fat molecules) in the blood by moving them into cells to be burned as energy. Cells that are insulin resistant no longer respond to normal levels of insulin and require the pancreas to produce higher and higher amounts of insulin in order to clear glucose and lipids from the blood.

Berberine is an alkaloid compound from barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and several other plants. Plants containing berberis have been used in Chinese traditional medicine for hundreds of years. In modern medicine it has shown several beneficial actions including antibiotic, cholesterol lowering, and blood sugar (diabetes) management, among others.

Several human studies have shown berberine to be effective in lowering elevated blood glucose.[8] In fact, berberine is as effective as the leading prescription drug Metformin in lowering blood sugar.1 Berberine has been shown to restore insulin sensitivity[9] and modulates key molecules in the insulin-signalling pathway to increase glucose uptake in
insulin-resistant cells.[10]

In one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 subjects with metabolic syndrome received either 500mg of berberine or a placebo three times a day for three months. Those who received berberine experienced remission in their metabolic syndrome and displayed a significant decrease in waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride profile, area under the curve (AUC) insulin and other markers of the syndrome. [11]

A 2015 analysis of 27 human studies totalling over 2,500 patients with Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipemia found significant improvements in biomarkers for both short term and longer term glucose metabolism when berberine was administered. Berberine was more effective than placebo and berberine combined with lifestyle intervention (such as exercise and calorie restriction) was more effective than lifestyle intervention alone. [12] The study also found that berberine lowers triglycerides and that no serious side effects were reported in any of the 27 studies of berberine.

Cinnulin PF® Cinnamon Extract

Cinnamon is one of the world’s most popular and widely used spices. Usage of cinnamon in Chinese medicine is said to date back over 4,000 years. Cinnamon was imported to Egypt and Europe from the Far East by 500 B.C. In addition to its value as a culinary spice, cinnamon has traditionally been utilized for immune health and supporting digestive function.

Cinnulin PF® is the patented and clinically studied water–soluble extract of cinnamon containing Type-A Polymers. Cinnulin PF is extracted from
the Cinnamomum burmannii species and unlike raw cinnamon powder does not contain coumarin or other undesirable components. Cinnulin PF has been shown to support healthy blood sugar metabolism.

Researchers led by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) have discovered that constituents in cinnamon bark called procyanidin Type-A polymers are the bioactive phytonutrients that help maintain the body’s ability to metabolize glucose in a healthy way. Cinnulin PF®, is a clinically researched, patented water extract of cinnamon that contains these Type-A polymers.

Cinnulin PF is the only extract standardized for doubly-linked Type-A Polymers, specifically tetramers and trimers shown in clinical research to have a host of health benefits, particularly those related to Metabolic Syndrome. In a recent study, 83% of those given the active Type A Polymers experienced a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (about an 8% drop), compared to only 33% in the placebo group. [13]

Moreover, subjects additionally showed statistically lower body fat, enhanced lean body mass, lower systolic blood pressure and saw improvements in various antioxidant measures.

Like berberine, cinnamon extract helps restore insulin sensitivity. One mechanism of insulin resistance is that protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP-1) blocks insulin receptor sites from recognizing insulin and therefore moving glucose into the cell.[14] The cinnamon extract fractions in Cinnulin PF can regulate PTP-1 and insulin receptor sites to “unblock” the receptors [15] and therefore help control insulin resistance[16] so that cells are again sensitive to insulin.

Studies have shown that cinnamon extracts can activate glycogen synthase, stimulate glucose uptake and inhibit glycogen synthase kinase.[17,18,19] Glycogen synthase is a key enzyme in glycogenesis. It converts glucose into glycogen for storage. Glycogen synthase is stimulated by exercise and its concentration in the blood is highest 30 to 60 minutes after intense exercise.[20]

Human trials have demonstrated Cinnulin PF’s role in reducing blood sugar and blood pressure levels and in improving body composition both from adding lean body mass and reducing body fat for people with insulin resistant conditions. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 22 people with prediabetes (an advanced form of insulin resistance) and metabolic syndrome, half the subjects were supplemented with either 500mg/day of Cinnulin PF or a placebo. After 12 weeks, the subjects who received Cinnulin PF showed significant decreases in fasting blood glucose and systolic blood pressure and increases in lean body mass compared with the placebo group.[21] Among the Cinnulin PF group, fasting blood glucose was reduced 8.4% (from 116.3 to 106.5mg/dL) on average; systolic blood pressure dropped, on average, 3.8% (from 133 to 128 mm Hg); and lean body mass increased 1.1% (0.6 kg) on average. Body fat also reduced slightly, but significantly for the Cinnulin PF group, on average -0.7% (-0.7kg). It is important to note that these body composition changes occurred without any change in diet or exercise patterns. No changes were observed in daily energy, macronutrient or
fluid intake during the study although there was a trend for the Cinnulin PF group to consume more total energy.

Chromax® Chromium Picolinate

Chromium is an essential trace mineral for humans.[22] Chromium has several functions within the body, largely related to metabolism and glucose, lipid, and protein storage. Chromium appears to improve insulin signaling and improve insulin sensitivity. Administering chromium has been shown to normalize glucose and insulin levels in people with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. [23,24]

In one study, a group of overweight subjects with prediabetes were supplemented with 1000mcg/day of chromium (as Chromax brand chromium picolinate). The subjects improved insulin sensitivity, possibly due to direct action between insulin and muscle cells.[25]

LipoCRP™ – Antioxidants to protect against fat inflammation signaling.

Our understanding of our fat cells has grown over the years as new discoveries are made. The adipose tissue has been shown to create and excrete chemical signals in the body. These chemical markers include the female hormone estrogen and the inflammation-causing cytokine interleukin 6, along with other biomarkers known as adipokines.

Obesity is now recognized as a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease[26] rather than a failure to adequately balance energy consumption and expendature. Fat cells signal each other using these biomarkers and their inflammed state actually makes it difficult for lipids to be transported out of the cell for use in energy-production. Interleukin 6 is an inflammatory adipokine that may promote low grade
inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation can cause a variety of health concerns and contribute to the cross-talk between fat cells.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker for inflammation in the body. CRP levels rise when fighting an infection and typically fall rapidly once the infection heals. Healthy people typically have very low levels CRP in their blood (<10mg/L). Studies have found that a higher BMI (overweight and obesity) are associated with higher CRP concentrations.[27] Obesity has been found to be the major cause of elevated CRP levels in people with metabolic syndrome—having a greater effect than exercise or smoking.[28]

Studies have linked daily vitamin C supplementation with reduced CRP levels. (Note, though the names seem similar, C-reactive protein is not chemically related to vitamin C.) Two double-blind, placebo-controlled human trials of healthy, non-smokers found that supplementing with 500mg and 1,000mg of vitamin C daily corresponded to a reduction in serum CRP levels of 24% and 25% respectively. [29,30]

Other studies have shown marked correlation between obesity and low levels of vitamin C. One study found that marginal levels of serum vitamin C is associated with burning less fat and becoming more fatigued during exercise.[31] Another study looked at a cross-section of rural Mexican women and linked vitamin C deficiency with a significantly higher incidence of obesity.[32]

LipoCRP contains 1,000mg of vitamin C to dampen the signalling of fat cells and lower CRP levels. It also includes Hidrox® freeze-dried olive pulp extract standardized for 3.5% hydroxytyrosol, a strong antioxidant and the most bioactive polyphenol from olives and an important part of the Mediterranean diet. In the body, hydroxytyrosol provides powerful antioxidant support and is active as an antioxidant in both fat and water soluble structures of the body.

Appendix A: References

1. Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Funayama K, Miyashita K. Fucoxanthin from edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jul 1; 332(2):392-7.

2. Miyata M, Koyama T, Kamitani T, Toda T, Yazawa K. Anti-obesity effect on rodents of the traditional Japanese food, tororokombu, shaved Laminaria. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Oct; 73(10):2326-8.

3. Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Takahashi N, Kawada T, Miyashita K. Fucoxanthin and its metabolite, fucoxanthinol, suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Int J Mol Med. 2006 Jul; 18(1):147-52.

4. Hashimoto T, Ozaki Y, Taminato M, Das SK, Mizuno M, Yoshimura K, Maoka T, Kanazawa K. The distribution and accumulation of fucoxanthin and its metabolites after oral administration in mice. Br. J. Nutr. 2009;102:242–248.

5. Ishikawa C, Tafuku S, Kadekaru T, Sawada S, Tomita M, Okudaira T, Nakazato T, Toda T, Uchihara JN, Taira N, Ohshiro K, Yasumoto T, Ohta T, Mori N. Anti-adult T-cell leukemia effects of brown algae fucoxanthin and its deacetylated product, fucoxanthinol. Int J Cancer. 2008 Dec 1;

6. Kadekaru T, Toyama H, Yasumoto T. Safety evaluation of fucoxanthin purified from Undaria pinnatifida. J. Jpn. Soc. Food Sci. 2008;55:304–308.

7. Abidov M, Ramazanov Z, Seifulla R, Grachev S. The effects of Xanthigen in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Jan; 12(1):72-81.

8. Gibbs P, Seddon K. Berberine. Alternative Medicine Review (British Library) 5 (2): 175–7. (April 2000). ISBN 0-7123-0649-8. PMID 10767672.

9. Kong W, Zhang H, Song D, Xue R, Zhao W, Wei J et al. Berberine reduces insulin resistance through protein kinase C-dependent up-regulation of insulin receptor expression. Metabolism . (January 2009)58 (1): 109–19. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2008.08.013. PMID 19059538

10. Liu L, Cheung S, Lan L, Ho S, Xu H, Chan J et al. Berberine Modulates Insulin Signaling Transduction in Insulin-resistant Cells. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (December 2009). 317 (1–2): 148–53. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.12.027. PMID 20036710.

11. Pérez-Rubio KG, González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, Robles-Cervantes JA, Espinel-Bermúdez MC. Effect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013 Oct; 11(5):366-9. doi: 10.1089/met.2012.0183. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

12. Lan J, Zhao Y, Dong F, Yan Z, Zheng W, Fan J, Sun G. Meta-analysis of the effect and safety of berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes
mellitus, hyperlipemia and hypertension. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Feb 23; 161C:69-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.09.049. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

13. Ziegenfuss TN, Hofheins JE, Mendel RW et al. Effects of a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2006;3:45-53. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-3-2-45.

14. Xu E, Schwab M, Marette A. Role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the modulation of insulin signaling and their implication in the
pathogenesis of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2014 Mar;15(1):79-97.

15. Imparl-Radosevich J, Deas S, Polansky MM, Baedke DA, Ingebritsen TS, Anderson RA, Graves DJ Horm Res. Regulation of PTP-1 and insulin receptor kinase by fractions from cinnamon: implications for cinnamon regulation of insulin signaling. 1998 Sep;50(3):177-82.

16. Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract (traditional herb) potentiates in vivo insulin-regulated glucose
utilization via enhancing insulin signaling in rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Dec;62(3):139-48

17. Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Anderson RA. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant extracts in vitro. J Agric Food
Chem. 2000;48:849–852. doi: 10.1021/jf9904517.

18. Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, et al. Isolation and characterization of polyphenol type-A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity. Agric Food Chem. 2004;52:65–70. doi: 10.1021/jf034916b

19. Jarvill-Taylor KJ, Anderson RA, Graves DJ. A hydroxychalcone derived from cinnamon functions as a mimetic for insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001;20:327–336

20. Jentjens R, Jeukendrup A (2003). “Determinants of post-exercise glycogen synthesis during short-term recovery”. Sports Med 33 (2): 117–44.

21. Ziegenfuss TN, Hofheins JE, Mendel RW et al. Effects of a water-soluble cinnamon extract on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome in pre-diabetic men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2006; 3:45-53. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-3-2-45.

22. Stoecker B. Chromium In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. (10th Ed). Shils M et al (eds). Lippincott Baltimore MD pp

23. Celafu WT, Hu FB. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004 Nov; 27(11):2741-51.

24. Balk EM, Tatsioni A, Lichtenstein AH, Lau J, Pittas AG. Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2007 Aug; 30(8):2154-63. Epub 2007 May 22.

25. Cefalu WT, Bell-Farrow AD, Stegner J, W ang ZQ, King T, Morgan T, Terry JG . Effect of chromium picolinate on insulin sensitivity in vivo. J Trace Elem Exp Med 1999; 12: 71 – 83.

26. Hotamisligil GS. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature. 2006;444(7121):860–867.

27. Visser M, Bouter LM, McQuillan GM, Wener MH, Harris TB. Elevated C-reactive protein levels in overweight and obese adults. JAMA. 1999 Dec 8;282(22):2131-5.

28. D Aronson, P Bartha, O Zinder, A Kerner, W Markiewicz, O Avizohar, G J Brook, and Y Levy. Obesity is the major determinant of elevated C-reactive protein in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. International Journal of Obesity (2004) 28, 674–679. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802609 Published online 2 March 2004

29. Block G, Jensen C, Dietrich M, Norkus EP, Hudes M, Packer L. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in active and passive smokers: influence of antioxidant supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Apr;23(2):141-7.

30. Block G, Jensen CD, Dalvi TB, Norkus EP, Hudes M, Crawford PB, Holland N, Fung EB, Schumacher L, Harmatz P. Vitamin C treatment reduces elevated C-reactive protein. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Jan 1;46(1):70-7. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.09.030. Epub 2008 Oct 10.

31. Carol S Johnston, Corinne Corte and Pamela D Swan. Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in young adults. Nutrition & Metabolism 2:35. August 31, 2006. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-35

32. Olga Patricia García, Dolores Ronquillo, Shadia Elian, Karina de la Torre, María del Carmen Caamaño and Jorge Luis Rosado. Vitamin C deficiency is associated with obesity in rural Mexican women. FASEB J. April 23, 2009 917.4