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Mitergy®

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Mitergy® is a patent pending, stimulant-free formulation of nutrients and co-factors which work in the body to protect the mitochondria and enhance mitochondrial energy production.* Niagen® is the patented and clinically studied metabolic precursor of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which enhances mitochondrial energy production and promotes energy-dependent regulation of cell functions.* elevATP™ has been shown to enhance production of ATP, the cell’s chemical definition of energy. L-carnitine serves as an important transporter of fuel for ATP production, while R-Alpha Lipoic Acid and pTeroPure™ Pterostilbene provide mitochondrial protection.*

Dose: 100mg | Count: 60

What is Mitergy®?

Mitochondrial Energy Support*

Mitochondria are the energy factories inside every single cell in your body. The energy made by mitochondria powers every action in your metabolism.

Mitergy® is a patent pending, stimulant-free formulation of nutrients and co-factors which work in the body to protect the mitochondria and enhance mitochondrial energy production.* Niagen® is the patented and clinically studied metabolic precursor of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which enhances mitochondrial energy production and promotes energy-dependent regulation of cell functions.* elevATP™ has been shown to enhance production of ATP, the cell’s chemical definition of energy. L-carnitine serves as an important transporter of fuel for ATP production, while R-Alpha Lipoic Acid and pTeroPure™ Pterostilbene provide mitochondrial protection.*

For best results, use Mitergy® in conjunction with the Live with Purpose® program for natural energy, available online at www.PurposeNutrition.com.

What Does It Do?

Mitochondria are the energy factories within our cells. The energy made by mitochondria powers every action in your metabolism. By reacting glucose and lipids with oxygen to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), they create the energy that our bodies require for every biological function. Every cell in our bodies contains mitochondria—some as few as two mitochondria per cell, others as many as 2,500. The amount of mitochondria in a cell and their condition plays a very large part in determining how much energy the cell will be able to produce and use. How much energy you have is a direct result of your mitochondria.

Mitergy® supports the mitochondria through its patent-pending combination of ingredients—each exhibiting a different mechanism within the body—Mitergy may improve the function and even the number of cellular mitochondria so that more ATP may be produced and more energy available throughout the body.

Mitergy takes a multi-pronged approach towards enhancing mitochondrial health. Each key ingredient supports the mitochondria via a different mechanism or biological pathway to enhance mitochondrial energy production, improve energy production efficiency, and protect mitochondria from damage and degradation.*

  1. Enhancing mitochondrial energy production so that your cells make more energy.1
    Niagen®:
    A patented and superior form of vitamin B3 (nicotinamide riboside), Niagen supports mitochondrial health and may increase biogenesis, or the creation of new mitochondria within living cells.In one study of mice fed nicotinamide riboside (NR) and compared to similar mice not fed NR, the quadriceps muscle biopsies of NR-fed showed increases in the amount of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondria-related biomarkers such as PGC-1? suggesting that NR feeding increases mitochondrial biogenesis in a tissue-specific manner.elevATP®: A patented combination of ancient peat and apple polyphenols that has been shown to increase intracellular ATP production.In one double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, subjects ingested 150mg of elevATP or a placebo. Those that took elevATP experienced increased levels of ATP in the blood without significant increases in reactive oxygen species (oxidants or free radicals) or lactic acid.2
    Rhodiola rosea extract:
    This medicinal herb that grows at high altitudes or arctic regions and has been used for hundreds of years to increase energy and help offset the effects of altitude sickness. Scientists have recently discovered that Rhodiola rosea stimulates the enzyme AMPK, which regulates the number and size of mitochondria.3
  2. Increasing the efficiency of mitochondrial energy production, through enhancing the ATP cycle and the efficiency of fuel transport into the cell for ATP production.Acetyl L-Carnitine: Often abbreviated to ALCAR, acetyl L-carnitine is a naturally occurring substance in the body that breaks down into the amino acid carnitine, which binds with lipids so that they can more efficiently enter the mitochondria to be burned as fuel.Supplementation with L-carnitine has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of obesity and type-II diabetes, largely due to its improvement of mitochondrial function.4 In animal studies of obese mice, just four weeks of supplementation with L-carnitine showed signs of reversing the abnormal markers of insulin resistance, obesity, abnormal lipid profiles and liver damage associated with metabolic syndrome.5,6,7,8Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA): A short-chain fatty acid that has been shown to enhance the ATP cycle of energy production and improve mitochondrial function measured by mitochondrial oxygen use and activity. It has been found to work well in conjunction with Acetyl L-Carnitine to enhance the ATP cycle of energy production and to protect mitochondria from damage and mutations from oxidants.9Alpha Lipoic Acid appears to improve energy production and mitochondrial biogenesis by AMPK to PGC-1? signaling. In tests done on aged mice, half of the subjects received Lipoic Acid supplementation in their drinking water for 30 days while the other half did not. Those aged mice that received Lipoic Acid had improved energy expenditure, body composition, and glucose tolerance, compared to the mice that did not receive it.10
  3. Protecting mitochondria from damage and degradation.pTeroPure®: The patented and clinically studied >99% pure form of the all-trans pterostilbene (pronounced “tero STILL bean”), a highly bioavailable form of double-methylated resveratrol found in blueberries that is more easily absorbed by the cell and has about 7 times the half-life in the body. Pterostilbene is in the same chemical family as resveratrol and is found in minute quantities in grapes (Vitis vinifera) and blueberries (Vaccinium spp). Pterostilbene acts as an antioxidant. It promotes cellular health and is four times better absorbed and has a longer half-life in the body than resveratrol, lasting about 7 times longer in the body.* pTeroPure protects the mitochondria from harmful oxidative compounds and may improve their function. In laboratory tests, pterostilbene has been shown to protect the mitochondria of rat livers from hydroxyl radicals oxidative damage and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), among other free radicals.11

Together, these ingredients offer powerful support for mitochondrial health and function that may have a synergistic effect greater than any single ingredient could have.

Mitergy is appropriate for anyone who is looking for more energy—either to improve athletic performance, offset the effects of aging or physical inactivity, or improve a lack of energy from mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria play an important function in powering the cells of the brain, and many of the supplements in Mitergy have shown a role in improved cognitive function.

Improve athletic performance

Mitochondria are responsible for generating ATP which fuels all cellular activity—particularly in skeletal muscle. Good mitochondrial function is especially important for any athletes who must maximize their energy production.

By increasing the health and amount of mitochondria within the cells—particularly within muscle cells, Mitergy may increase ATP production and subsequently, the amount of energy available to the muscles for athletic performance.

Reduce effects of aging

As we age, the number and function of the mitochondria within our cells decreases. Increasingly, scientists are espousing the belief that decreased mitochondrial function is one of the primary causes of aging and may determine human longevity.12,13 With ingredients that protect existing mitochondria, enhance their ability to create ATP (energy) production, and even stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis, Mitergy seeks to provide a solution to the “energy crisis” that many people encounter as they age. Mitergy not only helps to make the most of the mitochondria in the body, but to actually help generate new mitochondria.

Mitochondrial dysfunction

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a new class of health disorders believed to be caused by low mitochondrial function. Some common symptoms are poor growth, loss of muscle coordination, muscle weakness, visual problems, hearing problems, learning disabilities, heart disease, liver disease, kidney disease, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory disorders, neurological problems, low energy, autonomic dysfunction and dementia. These are often inherited conditions.

While the study and treatment of mitochondrial disease is still a new field, most treatment currently focuses on symptom management. Mitergy offers a different approach: with a combination of ingredients aimed at improving the health and number of mitochondria in the body, Mitergy seeks to offer those suffering from mitochondrial disorders a way to attach the root cause of their conditions.

Improved brain function

The human brain uses more energy than any other organ—approximately one fifth of the energy our bodies need. And like every other tissue in the body, this energy must be in the form of ATP supplied by the mitochondria. Only about two-thirds of this ATP is actually used for “thinking” (firing brain cell synapses). The rest is used for the housekeeping of maintaining brain cells and keeping them healthy.14 When brain cells aren’t able to generate enough ATP, these housekeeping functions may break down. Some people believe this is part of what allows amyloid plaques to build up leading to dementia, Alzheimer’s, and other degenerative brain conditions.

Supporting mitochondria throughout the body also benefits those in brain and nerve cells and may lead to better brain function. Several ingredients in Mitergy have shown benefits in brain function on their own. For example, a recent animal study showed that mice supplemented with nicotinamide riboside (Niagen®) showed marked improvements in Alzheimer’s-like symptoms and improved cognitive function as measured by lab tests that involved exploring new items, compared to those that did not receive the supplement.15 pTeroPure pterostilbene similarly shows neuroprotective benefits. In one study, animals fed high amounts of pterostilbene performed better on motor and cognitive function tests than those fed low amounts.16

1. Carles Cantó, Riekelt H. Houtkooper, Eija Pirinen, Dou Y. Youn, Maaike H. Oosterveer, Yana Cen, Pablo J. Fernandez-Marcos, Hiroyasu Yamamoto, Pénélope A. Andreux, Philippe Cettour-Rose, Karl Gademann, Chris Rinsch, Kristina Schoonjans, Anthony A. Sauve, and Johan Auwerx “The NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet induced obesity.” Cell Metab. 2012 Jun 6; 15(6): 838–847. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2012.04.022

2. Reyes-Izquierdo T, Nemzer B, Argumedo R, Shu C, Huynh L, Pietrzkowski Z. Effect of the dietary supplement ElevATP on blood ATP level: An acute pilot clinical study. J Aging Res Clin Practice 2013;2:178-184

3. Li HB, Ge YK, Zheng XX, Zhang L. Salidroside stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 7;588(2-3):165-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.04.036. Epub 2008 Apr 20.

4. Mingorance C, Gonzalez del Pozo M, Dolores Herrera M, Alvarez de Sotomayor M. Oral supplementation of propionyl-l-carnitine reduces body weight and hyperinsulinaemia in obese Zucker rats. Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct;102(8):1145-53.

5. Mingorance C, Duluc L, Chalopin M, et al. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e34268.

6. Amin KA, Nagy MA. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2009;1(1):17.

7. Xia Y, Li Q, Zhong W, Dong J, Wang Z, Wang C. L-carnitine ameliorated fatty liver in high-calorie diet/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice by improving mitochondrial function. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2011;3:31.

8. Kang JS, Lee WK, Yoon WK, et al. A combination of grape extract, green tea extract and L-carnitine improves high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Phytother Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):1789-95.

9. Ames BN. Prevention of mutation, cancer, and other age-associated diseases by optimizing micronutrient intake. J Nucleic Acids. 2010 Sept 22;2010.

10. Wang Y, Li X, Guo Y, Chan L, Guan X. alpha-Lipoic acid increases energy expenditure by enhancing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha signaling in the skeletal muscle of aged mice. Metabolism. 2010 Jul;59(7):967-76.

11. Jhankar D Acharya and Saroj S Ghaskadbi. Protective effect of Pterostilbene against free radical mediated oxidative damage. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:238 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-238

12. Lanza IR, Nair KS. Mitochondrial function as a determinant of life span. Pflugers Arch. 2010 Jan;459(2):277-89.

13. Alexeyev MF, LeDoux SP, Wilson GL. Mitochondrial DNA and aging. Clin Sci. 2004;107:355-364.

14. Fei Du, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang, Michael Friedman, Nanyin Zhang, Kâmil U?urbil, and Wei Chen. “Tightly coupled brain activity and cerebral ATP metabolic rate”
PNAS 2008 105 (17) 6409-6414; published ahead of print April 28, 2008, doi:10.1073/pnas.0710766105

15. Gong B, Pan Y, Vempati P, et al. Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha regulated beta-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer’s mouse models. Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Jun;34(6):1581-8.

16. Joseph JA, Fisher DR, Cheng V, Rimando AM, Shukitt-Hale B. Cellular and behavioral effects of stilbene resveratrol analogues: implications for reducing the deleterious effects of aging. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;56(22):10544–10551

Why Mitergy® Matters

Your mitochondria create all the energy in your body

Every cell in your body (except the red blood cells) relies on the mitochondria within them to create ATP by reacting glucose and lipids with oxygen. ATP is the fuel for every cellular action from the heart beating to the brain thinking, to muscles moving or nerves transmitting messages. Without the ATP fuel provided by the mitochondria, nothing can happen in the body.

The more mitochondria a cell has and the better condition they are in, the more ATP they can create and therefore the more energy you can have for all the various functions your cells need to perform.

However, when your cells and mitochondria don’t have all the components and cofactors they need to work efficiently, harmful oxidants can be created as a byproduct of ATP production. These oxidants or free radicals can harm the mitochondria and reduce their function.

Mitergy® is a patent pending, stimulant-free formulation of nutrients and co-factors which work in the body to enhance mitochondrial energy production, improve energy production efficiency, and protect mitochondria from damage and degradation.* Mitergy®’s patent-pending, multi-action formula supports mitochondrial energy in three ways:

  1. Enhancing mitochondrial energy production so that your cells make more energy, with Niagen®, A patented and superior form of vitamin B3 (nicotinamide riboside) that supports mitochondrial health and may increase biogenesis, or the creation of new mitochondria within living cells, elevATP®, a patented combination of ancient peat and apple polyphenols that has been shown to increase intracellular ATP production and standardized extract of Rhodiola rosea and adaptogen that can stimulates the enzyme AMPK, which regulates the number and size of mitochondria.*
  2. Increasing the efficiency of mitochondrial energy production, through enhancing the ATP cycle and the efficiency of fuel transport into the cell for ATP production with Acetyl L-Carnitine, which is metabolized by the body to the amino acid carnitine, which binds with lipids so that they can more efficiently enter the mitochondria to be burned as fuel and Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), a short-chain fatty acid that has been shown to enhance the ATP cycle of energy production and improve mitochondrial function measured by mitochondrial oxygen use and activity.*
  3. Protecting mitochondria from damage and degradation, with pTeroPure®, the patented and clinically studied >99% pure form of the all-trans pterostilbene (pronounced “tero STILL bean”), a highly bioavailable form of double-methylated resveratrol found in blueberries that is four times better absorbed and has a longer half-life in the body than resveratrol, lasting about 7 times longer in the body.* pTeroPure protects the mitochondria from harmful oxidative compounds and may improve their function.*

Mitochondrial function typically declines with age

Aging may be as much a function of the breakdown of our mitochondria as any other factor. Mitochondrial decay leads to reduced energy, poor glucose uptake and resulting obesity and muscle loss. It also leads to an increase in harmful oxidative free radicals within the body that cause damage to mitochondria and cells.

Further, because our brains require such a large amount of energy relative to their size, decrease ATP production reduces the brain’s ability to both work effectively, and also to perform the crucial “housekeeping” functions that remove plaque buildups and keep the brain working efficiently. It is now believed that these housekeeping functions use up to one third of the brain’s energy demand. When the mitochondria of the brain cells can’t produce sufficient ATP, these clean-up and repair functions of the brain suffer.

Mitergy protects against some of the neurological effects of aging:

  • Niagen (nicotinamide riboside) and pTeroPure pterostilbene both provide documented neuro-protective actions.
  • Increased biogenesis and ATP production attacks the “energy crisis” of old age.
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine supplementation has been shown to reverse the metabolic decay and reduced mitochondrial function in animals.
  • R-Alpha Lipoic Acid preserves and re-energizes already decayed mitochondria in elderly animal studies, back toward levels seen in younger subjects.

Product Details

Mitergy®: Mitochondrial Energy Support*

Mitochondria are the energy factories inside every single cell in your body. Mitergy® is a patent pending, stimulant-free formulation of nutrients which work in the body to protect the mitochondria and enhance mitochondrial energy production.*

Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, two capsules daily on an empty stomach with a large glass of water. 100% Vegetarian.

Warning: Consult your physician prior to taking this product if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication or have a medical condition.

nutrition-mitergy

Other Ingredients: Hypromellose (Vegetarian Capsules),
Microcrystalline Cellulose, Vegetable Source Magnesium Stearate.

Allergen Warning: This product was produced in a facility that may also process ingredients containing milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans.

Mitergy® formula protected by patents pending.

elevATP® is a registered trademark of VDF Futureceuticals, Inc. and protected
by U.S. patents.

NIAGEN® is a registered trademark of ChromaDex, Inc. and protected by U.S. patents.

pTeroPure™ is a trademark of ChromaDex, Inc. and protected by U.S. patents.

The Science behind Mitergy®

Mitergy® is a patent pending, stimulant-free formulation of nutrients and co-factors which work in the body to enhance mitochondrial energy production, improve energy production efficiency, and protect mitochondria from damage and degradation.* Niagen® is the patented and clinically studied metabolic precursor of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which enhances mitochondrial energy production and promotes energy-dependent regulation of cell functions.+ elevATP™ has been shown to enhance production of ATP, the cell’s chemical definition of energy. L-carnitine serves as an important transporter of fuel for ATP production, while R-Alpha Lipoic Acid and pTeroPure™ Pterostilbene provide mitochondrial protection.*. Many of these supplements also have positive effects on other metabolic systems such as moderating blood sugar levels, easing diabetes symptoms, improving cardiovascular health and other positive effects. Some of these effects may be related to the positive effects of mitochondrial support and some may be working through different metabolic pathways.

1. Enhancing mitochondrial energy production.

Niagen®

Niagen is the patented and superior form of vitamin B3 called nicotinamide riboside (NR). The body must convert any vitamin into a biologically active coenzyme form in order to use it. NR is converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD is an extremely important coenzyme for cellular function and NR is the direct precursor of NAD meaning that the body converts NR directly into NAD without any intermediary steps.

NAD is perhaps the single most important cellular cofactor for mitochondrial function and is essential in efficiently converting blood glucose into ATP. As a person or animal ages, NAD levels drop which subsequently reduces mitochondrial function and brings on age-related health problems.[1]

When Niagen (NR) enters the body, it is efficiently converted to NAD. (NAD can also be created less efficiently from other forms of vitamin B3 or the amino acid tryptophan.) As NAD level increase, mitochondria begin increasing ATP production from glucose.

Increased NAD levels in the body also stimulate the production of a special class of proteins called Sirtuins which some scientists have dubbed “longevity genes” because of sirtuins’ apparent role in preventing aging. NAD biosynthesis is required to produce sirtuins. A sirtuin called SIRT1 activates a biochemical called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator alpha (PGC-1?). PGC-1? is the body’s master regulator for mitochondria biogenesis, or the creation of new mitochondria organelles within living cells, as well as the increase in the mitochondria’s size.

niagen-figure1

 

Mitochondria are distinct life forms that have been incorporated into the living cells of all higher animals for millions of years. This symbiotic fusion of cells and mitochondria allow animals to create enough energy to move, think, and survive. However, mitochondria have their own DNA (mtDNA) that is distinct from the nuclear DNA that encodes the instructions for how our cells will grow. Each person inherits mitochondria within the egg cell from his or her mother. Because they contain mtDNA, mitochondria can multiply within cells if given the right conditions. However, this requires the coordination of 1,000-1,500 proteins that must be imported or synthesized within the cell. PGC-1? signals the cell to begin the process of mitochondria biogenesis.

NAD, which is found in every cell in the body is essential for the mitochondria to efficiently convert glucose into cellular energy in the form of ATP.[2] Lower levels of NAD lead to less ATP production and less mitochondria biogenesis[3,4]which becomes a vicious cycle of the aging process. Niagen (NR) however, converts directly into NAD within the body to raise NAD levels and support mitochondrial health.

elevATP®

ElevATP® is a proprietary blend of plant-derived trace minerals from ancient peat and a polyphenol-rich apple extract that has been shown in two human studies to stimulate endogenous ATP production in humans.

In one double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, subjects ingested 150mg of elevATP or a placebo. Those that took elevATP experienced increased levels of ATP in the blood without significant increases in reactive oxygen species (oxidants or free radicals) or lactic acid.[5]

This small pilot study was followed up by a larger study of 20 subjects with a cross-over design. Each subject was tested one day taking a placebo and the next day having taken 150mg of elevATP. Blood levels of ATP were taken 60 and 120 minutes after supplementation. One subject also had muscle biopsies performed before elevATP supplementation and 60 and 120 minutes after. The researchers found that subjects had a rise of blood ATP levels of 40 percent above baseline levels 60 minutes after supplementation and 28 percent higher than baseline 120 minutes after supplementation, compared to the same subjects when they did not take elevATP. Because blood levels of lactic acid and oxygen reactive species did not significantly rise, it is likely that the increased ATP in the blood was independent of glycolysis.[6] In other words, it seems that that elevATP stimulated the mitochondria in the white blood cells and other blood cells (except for red blood cells which lack mitochondria) to produce additional ATP.

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Rhodiola rosea root extract

Rhodiola rosea is a plant that has been used medicinally since ancient times. It grows in Siberia and Scandinavia, among other places and it has been used to help people survive high altitudes and cold temperatures. The Vikings are believe to have taken Rhodiola rosea before battle to increase their strength and endurance. Siberians have long taken Rhodiola to help cope with the harsh winter conditions.[7] Scientists in Russia have studied it extensively and dubbed it an “adaptagen” – a compound like green tea or ginseng that helps the body adapt to physical stress.

Rhodiola extracts have been found to extend energy production in animal studies. Rats forced to swim for extended periods were able to swim 26% longer when fed Rhodiola root extracts compared to those who were not fed Rhodiola. Additionally, while the extended swimming reduced the levels of mitochondrial ATP in both groups of rats, the ATP levels of those fed Rhodiola dropped much less than those without, suggesting that Rhodiola root extract can activate ATP synthesis or re-synthesis in muscles during exercise.[8]

There are many metabolically active compounds in Rhodiola rosea. One, called salidroside stimulates glucose uptake in the muscle cells of rats much like insulin does, and in a dose-dependent manner. (i.e. The more salidroside that is given, the greater the effect.) The researchers found that this was due to salidroside’s ability to stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMK) an enzyme that stimulates the production of more mitochondria.[9]

In fruit flies, Rhodiola rosea extract has been found to extend the duration of life by 24 percent and to extend health and performance during that time. It also extends the life of individuals that are already receiving the benefit of extreme calorie reduction. The life extension from Rhodiola is on top of other life extension methods, as opposed to resveratrol which does not offer additional life extension beyond what is gained by an extreme calorie restriction diet.[10]

2. Increasing the efficiency of mitochondrial energy production.

Acetyl L-Carnitine

As the mitochondria “burn” glucose and lipids by combining them with oxygen to create ATP, they also create some byproducts. Like a poorly tuned car that produces thick exhaust fumes of partially burned gasoline, our mitochondria often produce oxidants or free radicals that can harm the mitochondria themselves.[11] This leads to a reduction in mitochondrial function as we age.[12]

Acetyl L-Carntitne (ALCAR) is a form of the amino acid L-carnitine bound to an acetyl group. It serves two functions to mitochondria. First, it is responsible for latching on to lipid molecules outside of the mitochondria and transporting them inside where they can be burned. Inside the mitochondria, L-carnitine acts as an antioxidant to neutralize the oxidants or free radicals created by the mitochondria’s energy-producing functions.

As we age, our bodies’ levels of L-carnitine drop about 20% compared to the levels we had as youths.[13] Fortunately, supplementing with L-carnitine has been shown to increase mitochondrial function to youth-like levels.[14]

Supplementation with L-carnitine has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of obesity and type-II diabetes, largely due to its improvement of mitochondrial function.[15] In animal studies of obese mice, just four weeks of supplementation with L-carnitine showed signs of reversing the abnormal markers of insulin resistance, obesity, abnormal lipid profiles and liver damage associated with metabolic syndrome.[16,17,18,19]

R-Alpha Lipoic Acid

Lipoic Acid (LA) in it’s natural form of R-Alpha Lipoic Acid is an antioxidant that specifically inhibits mitochondrial superoxide (a harmful oxide or free radical by-product of energy production). Alpha Lipoic Acid is a short-chain fatty acid that is an important cofactor in mitochondrial respiration within the ATP production cycle and other enzyme complexes throughout the body. It has been found to work well in conjunction with Acetyl L-Carnitine to enhance the ATP cycle of energy production and to protect mitochondria from damage and mutations from oxidants.[20]

Alpha Lipoic Acid appears to improve energy production and mitochondrial biogenesis by AMPK to PGC-1? signaling. In tests done on aged mice, half of the subjects received Lipoic Acid supplementation in their drinking water for 30 days while the other half did not. Those aged mice that received Lipoic Acid had improved energy expenditure, body composition, and glucose tolerance, compared to the mice that did not receive it.[21]It has been shown to reverse mitochondrial decay and stimulate the generation of new mitochondria within living cells.[22]

3. Protecting mitochondria from damage and degradation.

pTeroPure® Pterostilbene

pTeroPure is the patented and clinically studied pure form of the all-trans pterostilbene (pronounced “tero STILL bean”), a highly bioavailable form of double-methylated resveratrol that is more easily absorbed by the cell and has about 7 times the half-life in the body. Pterostilbene is in the same chemical family as resveratrol and is found in minute quantities in grapes (Vitis vinifera) and blueberries (Vaccinium spp). Pterostilbene acts as an antioxidant. It promotes cellular health and is better absorbed and has a longer half-life in the body than resveratrol. Research suggests that pTeroPure pterostilbene may offer benefits to heart health, cognitive function, weight management and blood sugar management, and may act as an anti-aging antioxidant.

pTeroPure is a highly pure (>99%) form of pterostilbene with seven patents issued or pending. It is the only pterostilbene product with sanctioned human clinical trials, and the only pterostilbene with Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status.

pTeroPure offers several significant advantages over resveratrol. It is four times more available to our bodies: 80% bioavailability compared to 20% for resveratrol. It also lasts about seven times longer in our bodies. Moreover, pTeroPure has greater oral absorption and metabolic stability than resveratrol with 2-4 times greater cellular uptake and a seven times longer half-life in the human body.

pTeroPure is used in the Mitergy formulation to add a powerful antioxidant compound to further protect mitochondria from the harmful oxidant byproducts of energy production—especially by mitochondria that may already be damaged or diminished.

In laboratory tests, pterostilbene has been shown to protect the mitochondria of rat livers from hydroxyl radicals oxidative damage and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), among other free radicals.[23]

Appendix A: References

1. Massudi H, Grant R, Braidy, N, Guest J, Farnsworth B, Guillemin GJ. Age-Associated Changes In Oxidative Stress and NAD+ Metabolism In Human Tissue. PloS ONE (2012)

2. Busso N, Karababa M, Nobile M, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase/visfatin enzymatic activity identifies a new inflammatory pathway linked to NAD. PLoS One. 2008 May 21;3(5):e2267.

3. Imai SI, Guarente L. NAD and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends Cell Biol. 2014 Aug;24(8):464-71.

4. Gomes AP, Price NL, Ling AJ, et al. Declining NAD(+) induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging. Cell. 2013 Dec 19;155(7):1624-38.

5. Reyes-Izquierdo T, Nemzer B, Argumedo R, Shu C, Huynh L, Pietrzkowski. Effect of the dietary supplement ElevATP on blood ATP level: An acute pilot clinical study. J Aging Res Clin Practice 2013;2:178-184

6. Reyes-Izquierdo T, Nemzer B, Argumedo R, Shu C, Huynh L, Pietrzkowski Z. Effect of ElevATP on whole blood ATP levels: A single-dose crossover clinical study. J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(1):56-60

7. Darbinyan, V; Kteyan, A; Panossian, A; Gabrielian, E; Wikman, G; Wagner, H (Oct 2000). “Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue–a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty.”. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 7 (5): 365–71.

8. Abidov, M. et al. Effects of extracts from rhodiola rosea and rhodiola crenulata (crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 136, 585-587 (2003).

9. Li HB, Ge YK, Zheng XX, Zhang L. Salidroside stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 7;588(2-3):165-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.04.036. Epub 2008 Apr 20.

10. Samuel E. Schriner, Kevin Lee, Stephanie Truong, Kathyrn T. Salvadora, Steven Maler, Alexander Nam, Thomas Lee, and Mahtab Jafari. Extension of Drosophila lifespan by Rhodiola rosea through a mechanism independent from dietary restriction. PLoS ONE 2013. 8(5): e63886

11. Terman A, Kurz T, Navratil M, Arriaga EA, Brunk UT. Mitochondrial turnover and aging of long-lived postmitotic cells: the mitochondrial-lysosomal axis theory of aging. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Apr;12(4):503-35.

12. Parise G, De Lisio M. Mitochondrial theory of aging in human age-related sarcopenia. Interdiscip Top Gerontol. 2010;37:142-56.

13. Tanaka Y, Sasaki R, Fukui F, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation restores decreased tissue carnitine levels and impaired lipid metabolism in aged rats. J Lipid Res. 2004 Apr;45(4):729-35.

14. Pesce V, Fracasso F, Cassano P, Lezza AM, Cantatore P, Gadaleta MN. Acetyl-L-carnitine supplementation to old rats partially reverts the age-related mitochondrial decay of soleus muscle by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis. Rejuvenation Res. 2010 Apr-Jun;13(2-3):148-51.

15. Mingorance C, Gonzalez del Pozo M, Dolores Herrera M, Alvarez de Sotomayor M. Oral supplementation of propionyl-l-carnitine reduces body weight and hyperinsulinaemia in obese Zucker rats. Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct;102(8):1145-53.

16. Mingorance C, Duluc L, Chalopin M, et al. Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e34268.

17. Amin KA, Nagy MA. Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2009;1(1):17.

18. Xia Y, Li Q, Zhong W, Dong J, Wang Z, Wang C. L-carnitine ameliorated fatty liver in high-calorie diet/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice by improving mitochondrial function. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2011;3:31.

19. Kang JS, Lee WK, Yoon WK, et al. A combination of grape extract, green tea extract and L-carnitine improves high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Phytother Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):1789-95.

20. Ames BN. Prevention of mutation, cancer, and other age-associated diseases by optimizing micronutrient intake. J Nucleic Acids. 2010 Sept 22;2010.

21. Wang Y, Li X, Guo Y, Chan L, Guan X. alpha-Lipoic acid increases energy expenditure by enhancing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha signaling in the skeletal muscle of aged mice. Metabolism. 2010 Jul;59(7):967-76.

22. Liu J. The effects and mechanisms of mitochondrial nutrient alpha-lipoic acid on improving age-associated mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction: an overview. Neurochem Res. 2008 Jan;33(1):194-203.

23. Jhankar D Acharya and Saroj S Ghaskadbi. Protective effect of Pterostilbene against free radical mediated oxidative damage. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:238 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-238

Live with Purpose® for Natural Energy

Feeling full of natural energy makes everything in life better. The energy for every cell in our bodies is produced by mitochondria, the energy factories inside each cell in your body. Keeping your mitochondria humming is the key to feeling your best.

The Live with Purpose® Program for natural energy integrates the best in nutrition, dietary and lifestyle research to create a comprehensive program to get you on the right track quickly and easily. We have done the research into the simplest actions that give you the greatest results—the 80/20 rule for natural energy.

Here’s what we found:

LIVE WITH PURPOSE® PROGRAM FOR NATURAL ENERGY

Supplement with Mitergy.

Mitochondria are the energy factories inside every single cell in your body. The energy made by mitochondria powers every action in your metabolism. Mitergy® is a patent-pending, stimulant-free formulation of nutrients and co-factors which work in the body to protect the mitochondria and enhance mitochondrial energy production.* Niagen® is the patented and clinically studied metabolic precursor of NAD* (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which enhances mitochondrial energy production and promotes energy-dependent regulation of cell functions.* elevATP™ has been shown to enhance production of ATP—the specific fuel molecule used in every cell in our bodies. L-carnitine serves as an important transporter of fuel for ATP production, while R-Alpha Lipoic Acid and pTeroPure™ Pterostilbene provides mitochondrial protection.*

Avoid a high fat diet.

Dietary fat has come a long way, lately. Once it was considered a dietary villain, but now we better understand that there are different types of fats and fats play a crucial role in our health. However, we also know that a high fat diet (more than 60% of calories from fat) significantly increases the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS—also known as free radicals) that the mitochondria create. Excessivelevels of ROS can cause significant damage to the mitochondria themselves as well as the cells they are in. Limiting oxidative damage through diet can help maintain healthy glucose metabolism..

So don’t cut out all fats, to be sure. Focus on the healthy fats from extra virgin olive oil, nuts, and seeds. But limit your total fat intake to around 30% of your total calories.

Going deeper.

This quick start program gives you the 80/20 rule basics, to start getting 80% of the benefit for 20% of the effort. To go deeper, download the “Moving Well” chapter from Greg Horn’s latest book, Living Well [here].

Exercise.

Since mitochondria create most of the energy our cells use, it is reasonable that training our bodies through exercise could stimulate the creation of more mitochondria in muscle cells so that our cells can keep up (called mitochondrial biogenesis). And this is in fact the case. We’ve known since the 1960s that endurance exercise increases the number and function of mitochondria in our skeletal muscle cells.4 More recent studies show that resistance training (weight lifting) and interval training (like most sports) also help stimulate mitochondrial function and also the creation of more mitochondria in muscle cells.5,6

Different types of exercise create mitochondrial biogenesis in different ways, but they all work and the effects seem to be additive—weight lifting combined with sports seem to stimulate the most mitochondria. Since we’re concentrating on the 80/20 rule here, the easy takeaway is to do some exercise every day and vary it a little. Do the exercise you like—that’s the kind you’re most likely to stick with. Walking, running, playing soccer or softball, swimming, or lifting weights—any of these will help increase your mitochondria and consequently, your energy levels.

Sleep for energy.

Sleep is a time for rest, rejuvenation, and repair. Getting the required eight hours of sleep per night is a critical part of enhancing natural energy levels. To get better sleep so that you wake up refreshed and maximize natural energy during the day:

  • Make a sleep appointment for eight hours of sleep every night.
  • Go to sleep and wake at the same time each day.
  • Limit your light exposure for an hour before bed.
  • Don’t eat or drink caffeine afternoon.
  • Use your bed only for sleep (and one other thing).

Cut the white stuff.

Almost nothing in nature’s cornucopia of foodstuffs is white. The white foods we eat have probably been heavily processed, generally stripping away vital nutrients. Avoiding these heavily processed, nutrient-poor foods—especially sugar-laden sodas—can put you on the path to healthy weight loss.

White flour, white rice, pure sugar, and the products made from them such as white bread are easy-to-digest calories that create unnatural spikes in blood sugar and trigger fat storage. By reducing these fast-carbohydrate foods and replacing them with slower digesting and less processed alternatives you will notice an immediate stabilization of your energy levels, reduction of food cravings, and enhanced progress in weight loss.

You can expect about a week of “sugar detox” while your body adjusts to this healthier way of eating. Don’t worry, it gets better pretty fast. The first day or two without sugar and other over-processed foods might hard but you can do it. Remember, you are about to be rewarded with more stable energy and freedom from food cravings and blood sugar crashes. You’ll probably be amazed at how much more energy you have and how much better foods taste without all that added sweetness. However, don’t just replace sugars with artificial sweeteners. They do not appear to help with weight loss and may even cause weight gain.3 It’s better to reduce all sweeteners and let your body return to a more natural perception of healthy sweetness levels.

Natural Energy Step-by-Step

Here’s an example of how you can easily incorporate the Live with Purpose® Natural Energy Program into your life. Feel free to adjust times to your schedule, but keep an eight-hour period of uninterrupted sleep.

6:00 AM Wake up refreshed after a solid eight hours of restful, health-restoring sleep.

6:15 AM Start your day with some exercise. Whether you prefer going for a run, getting a swim, or hitting the weights, any give you the exercise you need to stimulate the production of more mitochondria. To really get the most benefits, mix it up and do something different than you did yesterday.

7:00 AM Choose an “eating clean” breakfast that leaves out sweeteners (sugar or artificial) and refined foods. Avoid white bread, breakfast cereals. (Many contain a lot of sugar and refined carbs), and fried foods like donuts. Unfortunately, fruit juices like OJ are mostly empty sugars without the fiber of real fruit. The good news is, if you’re craving orange juice, you can always eat an organic orange—they’re loaded with fiber and nutrients and actually taste a lot more orangey than sugary OJ.??Organic egg whites, with whole wheat toast and avocados can be a great day-starter that doesn’t come with a lot of toxins or processed, refined carbs. Some fats are good, but don’t go overboard—keep the fats to about 30% of your total calories.??Finish breakfast with Mitergy® and a big glass of water to give your mitochondria the supplements they need for optimum health.

10:00 AM Time for a big glass of water. Add a small “eating clean” snack like a handful of organic almonds (but say no to granola bars or trail mix with their sugary stuff). Drinking water throughout the day—a sip or a glass at a time—helps keep you hydrated so your liver can work at full efficiency.

Noon Choose a delicious, clean lunch to keep you going through the day. A salad made from organic greens and lean protein would be a great choice. Have more water during the meal but steer clear of sodas (regular or diet) and other sugary, excessively fatty, or highly processed foods.

3:00 PM Keep drinking your water through the afternoon. A fifteen-minute walk in the fresh air can help you recharge. Walking can even help you sleep more soundly at night.

6:00 PM After work is also a great time for exercise—especially if you want to play a group sport like basketball or soccer. If you can work in a game or two a week after work (with or without the morning exercise that day) you can get a highly effective interval training workout while you have a great time and socialize with friends.

7:00 PM Enjoy a great dinner that includes some fiber—fiber late in the day helps you feel full through the night so you sleep better. Organic whole-wheat pasta with tomato sauce and a serving or two of veggies would be a great option. Keep drinking the water and limit your alcohol intake to 1-2 drinks.

9:00 PM Start your bedtime routine an hour before you go to sleep (or 15 hours after you wake up, if you’d rather think about it that way). Lower the lights, turn off your digital devices (holding digital screens close to your face can interfere with the production of melatonin—our natural signal that it’s time to fall asleep) and downshift to a more relaxed state. Light housework or reading under a small incandescent lamp is a great way to settle in for sleep.

10:00 PM Time for bed. Make an appointment with yourself to be in bed with the lights out eight hours before you have to wake up the next morning. This will help you get the sleep that your liver—and really your whole body—needs to be healthy and feel great.

Live with Purpose®

Purpose®—we all have one. Pursuing it gives life meaning, making us more conscious of the choices we make in every dimension of our lives. These daily choices—how we nourish our bodies, minds, and intentions—determine our success at what really matters. Live with Purpose® programs are designed to give you maximum benefit most easily. Much more than just recommending a nutrition program, this integrated approach targeting better health for the whole person is our guiding philosophy behind each Live with Purpose® program. We believe that our choices should make yours easier— so you can pursue your purpose.